The connector used in the voice and data cabling is called RJ45. It is a physical interface used to connect structured cabling networks, (categories 5e, 6 and 6A). It has eight pins or electrical connections, which are normally, used as ends of twisted pair cables. It is commonly used with standards such as TIA / EIA-568-B, which defines the layout of the pins. Its main application is the use in Ethernet network cables, where usually 8 pins are used (4 pairs).
In an installation of a data network RJ45 connectors should be used with the same type and speed as the network cable used, avoiding mixing different types and categories since they can cause negative effects (creation of interference, noise, etc.).
The types of RJ45 connectors are:
UTP Data Cabling:
Designed to be combined with twisted pair cable without shielding. They are low cost and easy to use, but they produce more errors than other types of connector and have limitations to work over long distances without signal regeneration.
FTP Data Cabling:
Designed to be combined with twisted pair cable and global shielding. It improves the protection against interference and its impedance is 120 Ohms.
SFTP Data Cabling:
Designed to be combined with a special version of twisted pair cable that uses multiple versions of metal protection; It is shielded and shielded.
Categories of RJ45 connectors
Category 5 was originally designed to transmit at 100 MHz frequencies, providing a line speed of 100 Mbit / s. Category 5 uses two twisted pairs (4 contacts) with a maximum range of 100 meters.
Later, a Category 5e specification with tighter specifications and standards was introduced, theoretically increasing the speed to 350 Mbit / s. The new standard also required new cables to include the four twisted pairs.
At short distances, under ideal signal conditions and assuming they have 4 pairs, Category 5 and 5e can transmit at Gigabit Ethernet speeds. Gigabit Ethernet uses an optimized coding scheme specifically designed to operate under these lower signal tolerances.
Previously compatible with Category 5e, this new cable has strict standards and significant enhanced protection. Category 6 was designed as the standard for Gigabit Ethernet, providing native speeds of up to 1000 Mbit / s with a frequency of 250 MHz. By reducing the maximum cable distance from 100 meters to 55, it supports Gigabit-10 Ethernet mode.
Category 6a doubles the frequency up to 500 MHz while still reducing noise interference with sheet-based protection. These improvements eliminated the cable distance penalty when the Gigabit-10 Ethernet mode was in operation.
Operating at frequencies up to 600 MHz, Category 7 was designed specifically to support Gigabit 10 Ethernet speeds. In addition to the protection introduced in Category 6a, this new specification provides individual protection for each of the four twisted pairs. Category 7 has a maximum distance of 100 meters, while maintaining the previous compatibility with Category 5 and 6.
Category 7 increases the frequency up to 1000 MHz, providing an increased specification capable of supporting the future speeds of 40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. The 1000 MHz increase also allows the transmission of low frequency cable television reproductions.
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